by Lawrence Summers,  President of Harvard University
Memorial Church
Cambridge Massachusetts
September 17, 2002

I speak with you today not as President of the University but as a concerned member of our community about something that I never thought I would become seriously worried about -- the issue of anti-Semitism.

I am Jewish, identified but hardly devout.  In my lifetime, anti-Semtism has been remote from my experience.  My family all left Europe at the beginning of the 20th century.  The Holocaust is for me a matter of history, not personal memory.  To be sure,
there were country clubs where I grew up that had few if any Jewish members,  but not ones that included people I knew.  My experience in college and graduate school, as a faculty member, as a government official -- all involved little notice of my religion.

Indeed, I was struck during my years in the Clinton administration that the existence of an economic leadership team with people like Robert Rubin, Alan Greenspan, Charlene Barshefsky and many others that was very heavily Jewish passed without comment
or notice -- it was something that would have been inconceivable a generation or two ago, as indeed it would have been inconceiv-able a generation or two ago that Harvard could have a Jewish President.

Without thinking about it much, I attributed all of this to progress -- to an ascendancy of enlightenment and tolerance.  A view
that prejudice is increasingly put aside.  A view that while the policies of the Middle East was enormously complex, and conten-tious, the question of the right of a Jewish state to exist had been settled in the affirmative by the world community.

But today, I am less complacent.  Less complacent and comfortable because there is disturbing evidence of an upturn in anti-Semitism globally, and also because of some developments closer to home.

Consider some of the global events of the last year:

*      There have been synagogue burnings, physical assaults on Jews, or the painting of swastikas on Jewish memorials in every
country in Europe.  Observers in many countries have pointed to the worst outbreak of attacks against the Jews since the              Second World War.
*      Candidates who denied the significance of the Holocaust reached the runoff stage of elections for the nation's highest office in    France and Denmark.  State-sponsored stations in many nations of the world spew anti-Zionist propaganda.
*      The United Nations-sponsored World Conference on Racism -- while failing to mention human rights abuses in China,              Rwanda, or anyplace in the Arab world -- spoke of Israel's policies prior to recent struggles under the Barak government as
constituting ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.  The NGG declaration at the same conference was even more

I could go on.  But I want to bring this closer to home.  Of course academic communities should be and always will be places that allow any viewpoint to be expressed.  And certainly there is much to be debated about the Middle East and much in Israel's
foreign and defense policy that can be and should be vigorously challenged.

But where anti-Semitism and views that are profoundly anti-Israeli have traditionally been the primary preserve of poorly educated right-wing populists, profoundly anti-Israel views are increasingly finding support in progressive intellectual communties.  Serious and thoughtful people are advocating and taking actions that are anti-Semitic in their effect if not their intent.

For example:

Hundreds of European academics have called for an end to support  for Israeli researchers, though not for an end to support
for researchers from any other nation.
*      Israeli scholars this past spring, were forced off the board of an international literature journal.
*      At the same rallies where protesters, many of them university students, condemn the IMF and global capitalism and raise
questions about globalization, it is becoming increasingly common to also lash out at Israel.  Indeed, at the anti-IMF rallies
last spring, chants were heard equating Hitler and Sharon.
*      Events to raise funds for organizations of questionable political provenance that in some cases were later found to support
terrorism have been held  by student organizations on this and other campuses with at least modest success and very little criticims. 
*      And some here at Harvard and some at universities across the country have called for the University to single out Israel
among all nations as the lone country where it is inappropriate for any part of the university's endowment to be invested. I hasten to say the University has categorically rejected this suggestion.

We should always respect the academic freedom of everyone to take any position.  We should also recall that academic freedom does not include freedom from criticism.  The only antidote to dangerous ideas is strong alternatives vigorously advocated.

I have always throughout my life been put off  by those who heard the sound of breaking glass, in every insult or slight, and conjured up images of Hitler's Kristallnacht at any disagreement with Israel.  Such views have always seemed to me alarmist if
not slight hysterical.  But I have to say that while they still seem to me unwarranted; they seem rather less alarmist in the world
of today than they did a year ago.

I would like nothing more than to be wrong.  It is my greatest hope and prayer that the idea of a rise of anti-Semitism proves to
be a self-denying prophecy -- a prediction that carries the seeds of its own falsification.  But this depends on all of us.

Copyright (c) 2002 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College
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